Retroviruses: New Insights

Retroviroses

     

XVI edição do “Prêmio de Incentivo em Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação para o SUS”

XVI edição do “Prêmio de Incentivo em Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação para o SUS”

A Profa. Dra. Ester C. Sabino, Diretora do Instituto de Medicina Tropical e colaboradores, Carla Luana Dinardo, Juliana Vieira Bianchi Ingrid H. Ribeiro, Márcia Regina Dezan, Valéria Brito Oliveira, Francisco C. A. Gomes, José E. Krieger, Alexandre Costa Pereira, Hadassa Campos Santos, Helves Domingues, Vanderson Geraldo Rocha e Alfredo Mendrone-Júnior, das instituições parceiras: Fundação Pró-Sangue Hemocentro de São Paulo e Laboratório de Genética e Cardiologia Molecular, concorreram ao prêmio da XVI edição do “Prêmio de Incentivo em Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação para o SUS” (Programa Pesquisa para o SUS – PPSUS), ficando na 3ª colocação com o trabalho: “Padronização de estratégia molecular custo-efetiva para rastreamento de fenótipos eritrocitários e plaquetários raros em doadores de sangue visando à organização de banco de doadores
raros no Estado de São Paulo”

 

Introdução

Pacientes em regime crônico de transfusão, principalmente falcêmicos, tem uma elevada taxa de aloimunização eritrocitária, que está associada a reações hemolíticas tranfusionais1. Quando há formação de múltiplos alo-anticorpos ou de alo-anticorpos contra antígenos de alta frequência populacional, somente doadores raros pode atender os pacientes. A busca por estes doadores pode ser feita por técnicas sorológicas ou moleculares, ambas economicamente desvantajosas. Nesta esfera, a técnica de genotipagem através de microarranjos líquidos em equipamento de OpenArray® representa uma estratégia promissora para ser aplicada em hemocentros, pelo baixo custo da reação2. Não há, em São Paulo, nenhum hemocentro público realizando a triagem molecular para a identificação de doadores raros, sendo o suprimento de unidades raras feito eventualmente por entidades privadas ou por outros estados/países.

 

 

Objetivos

1- Padronizar a genotipagem em larga escala para determinação de antígenos eritrocitários e plaquetários pela técnica de microarranjos líquidos em equipamento OpenArray® em doadores de sangue, de forma a torná-la estratégia viável para a identificação de doadores raros para atendimento do estado de São Paulo. 2- Elaboração de software para registro destes doadores, com interface com o equipamento de genotipagem.

Resultados

5487 doadores foram genotipados usando a estratégia descrita, consumindo uma quantidade total de 59 placas de hibridização. Das 28 variações genéticas avaliadas, vinte e seis foram adequadamente genotipadas, gerando resultados acuradamente agrupados, e duas (K/k e U+w) falharam, devido à grande quantidade de resultados não amplificados e inválidos.

372 doadores foram genotipados por lote, consumindo tempo total de 11h30 min incluindo todas as etapas desde a extração de DNA à disponibilização dos dados para o software de gerenciamento dos dados. As amostras de todos os doadores foram genotipadas em 15 dias de trabalho.

Os resultados foram interpretados por ensaio (SNP ou variação genética incluído na placa), levando em consideração a fluorescência de VIC e FAM, e clusterizados (agrupados) pelo sistema de análise. 142.662 SNPs foram genotipados e 81,4% dos resultados foram considerados válidos, ou seja, foram automaticamente agrupados pelo software do fabricante e pertenciam a uma placa de matriz cujos controles internos foram acuradamente genotipados. Os resultados com falha ​​totalizaram 18.6% e foram devidos a não amplificação das sequências de DNA (fluorescência VIC e FAM abaixo do pré-estabelecido limiar) (11,36%), resultados indeterminados (não agrupados pelo software do fabricante) (6,26%) e resultados inválidos (baixo sinal de fluorescência em VIC ou FAM (0,98%).

A quantidade total de discrepâncias envolvendo amostras-controle anteriormente genotipadas foi de 0,39% (12 resultados discrepantes em um total de 3.044 SNPs de amostras de controle genotipados com resultados válidos). A precisão geral do ensaio foi superior a 99,6%, e a reprodutibilidade foi de 99,74%.

Os dados resultantes foram conectados ao software de criação própria que permitiu a busca de doadores com base no fenótipo desejado, facilitando a identificação de unidades compatíveis. Somente os resultados válidos estavam disponíveis para o usuário do software (Figura2).

Foram identificados 70 doadores com fenótipos muito raros, a saber: 32 doadores VS+; 2 doadores mutação C/c intron 2; 3 doadores k-; 7 doadores Jsb-; 5 doadores Lub-; 2 doadores S silencioso; 1 doador Dib-; 1 doador Joa-; 2 doadores Coa-; 9 doadores Yta– e 6 doadores Kna-.

É importante ressaltar que, no Brasil, só existe registro de um doador ativo com fenótipo Dib-, registrado em banco de sangue privado. No Hospital das Clínicas da FMUSP existem dois pacientes com anti-Lu3 e um com anti-Kpb que foram transfundidos com bolsas dos doadores identificados no presente estudo. Até o momento, a transfusão tinha sido postergada para estes três casos.

Conclusão

A genotipagem através de microarranjos líquidos (OpenArray®) proposta neste estudo mostrou ser ferramenta efetiva para rastreamento de doadores de sangue com fenótipos raros. A automação de todas as etapas experimentais e o interfaceamento completo dos dados minimizaram os erros humanos e aumentaram a rapidez do processo descrito, que pode ser aplicado como estratégia de genotipagem de doadores de todo o Estado de São Paulo.

 

IUIS Brazil Advanced Course on Vaccines

The IUIS-Brazil Advanced Course of Vaccines is an immersion course on advanced topics and current research on multiple aspects of vaccine development, including discovery, preclinical development, upscaling, manufacturing, clinical trials, and regulatory issues, with world-class specialists.

REGISTRATION DEADLINE: SEPTEMBER 1​, 2017

Registration is free of charge. A limited number of places is available (50)​.
​Latin American g​raduate students, postdocs and junior faculty ​doing research on vaccines or related issues ​are encouraged to apply.

Applications (abstract, CV, etc) will be subject to a selection process. The course will cover national or international travel and hotel expenses for a number of the selected students.

 

ZIKAlliance’s Clinical Meeting in Cuba

zikalliance

 

SIPAT 2017

SIPAT-2017

 

Researchers work to discover the hidden spread of the Zika virus in Brazil and the Americas

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A collaboration in international research has been studying the genetics of the Zika virus in Brazil and abroad, providing a new understanding of the disease and its rapid spread through space and time. The research has significant implications for public health and has the potential to improve responses to future outbreaks.

The research, published today in Nature, was conducted by the Universities of Birmingham and Oxford, in partnership with FioCruz Bahia and the University of São Paulo, in addition to the support of the Ministry of Health.

By performing genome sequencing to understand the genetic makeup of the virus, the team was able to track the spread of the virus throughout Brazil. The study showed that the establishment of Zika in Brazil – and its spread to other regions – occurred before transmission in the Americas was discovered. From the revelation of this “hidden” epidemic, the results will help scientists better understand the relationship between the Zika epidemic and reports of problems in births and other diseases.

With little knowledge at the time about the epidemiology and evolution of the Zika virus, the researchers traveled 2,000 km throughout northeastern Brazil in June last year. The team traveled in a micro-bus equipped with modern mobile DNA sequencing devices and tested samples from more than 1,300 patients infected with the virus.

In February 2016, Zika was declared a “Public Health Emergency of International Concern” by the World Health Organization (WHO) in response to evidence that the infection may cause birth defects in the fetus of infected pregnant women. The virus can be transmitted from an infected pregnant woman to her developing baby, causing problems, including severe microcephaly – a condition that results in babies being born with a smaller head size.

Dr. Nuno Faria, Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, says: “Although there were probably millions of cases of the Zika virus in Brazil, there were only a handful of known virus genomes before our work. Of the Zika virus is critical to vaccine design and also to identify areas where surveillance is most needed. ”
Professor Oliver Pybus, also from the Department of Zoology at Oxford University, said: “We generated genomes of the Zika virus to establish the epidemic history of the virus in the Americas. We showed that the virus was present in Brazil for a full year before the first confirmed cases In May 2015.

“We also found that the Northeast of Brazil, which was the region with the highest number of cases of Zika and microcephaly, was the connection of the epidemic in Brazil and played an important role in its spread to large urban centers, such as Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo , Before it has spread to the Americas.We now have a better understanding of the epidemiology of the virus. ”

During the genome-wide sequencing journey across Brazil, the researchers used the Minion portable DNA sequencer from Oxford Nanopore Technologies, which began as a spinout company at Oxford University. The portable device weighs less than 100g and is powered by the USB port of a laptop, so it is ideal for field work across the country.

“Genome sequencing has become a powerful tool for the study of emerging infectious diseases, however sequencing the genome directly from uninsulated clinical specimens remains a challenge for viruses like Zika,” said Nick Loman of the School of Biosciences University of Birmingham.

“We have developed a new protocol that allows real-time genomic sequencing – vitally important in viral outbreak management, because it can provide a real insight into how a virus is spreading, transmitting, and evolving.

“In addition, using equipment such as portable nanopore sequencing, we were able to conduct emergency epidemiological research faster, to get immediate results while working in the field, or while on the road in Brazil.

“This new protocol will undoubtedly be very beneficial to researchers working in remote areas around the world during times of viral outbreaks.”
The research project was funded by the Zika Rapid Response Initiative Medical Research Council, USAID, and with the support of the Wellcome Trust and the Newton Fund. This underscores the importance of creating reliable interinstitutional partnerships and sharing data openly during field research work focused on the disease.

What is the next step? Professor Luiz Alcantara, from FioCruz Bahia, points out that: “The project is now expanding to other geographical areas of Brazil, where we are dealing not only with the Zika virus, but also with Dengue and Chikungunya, as well as recent epidemics of The threat posed by mosquito-borne viruses in Brazil is serious and there is an urgent need to better understand its epidemiology to prevent its spread. ”

As part of an international cooperation effort to share valuable data and results, the report was published along with two companion articles on the genetics and evolution of the Zika virus epidemic (for more details, see DOI: 10.1038 / nature22400 and DOI: 10.1038 / Nature22402). Zika continues to be a significant threat to public health and the work highlights the need for continued research and surveillance of Zika and other mosquito-borne viruses in Brazil. Together, the documents paint a collective picture of the Zika impact scale, providing potential recommendations for future rapid detection and control of virus outbreaks.

For more information or interviews, contact:

1. Emma McKinney, Press Officer, University of Birmingham, on 0121 414 6681 or e.j.mckinney@bham.ac.uk
2. Lanisha Butterfield, Media Relations Manager, University of Oxford, 01865 280531 or lanisha.butterfield@admin.ox.ac.uk

See the paper in: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nature22401.html

 

Journey of the Institute of Tropical Medicine of São Paulo

Registration is open for the “ CONFERENCE OF THE INSTITUTE OF TROPICAL MEDICINE OF SÃO PAULO – USP “, on June 23, 2017, from 08h30 to 17h30, at the Rebouças Convention Center, 600, red auditorium.

To register and ensure your presence, fill out the form that is located in the link below:
https://goo.gl/forms/4pxwRVF8LE4I5AhW2

 

USP Campuses-safety prevention is important on and off Campus

Supervision of University prevention and protection

Aptly, the security model adopted in USP is based on a structure that has no legal administrative tools that can restrict constitutional freedoms of the people that make up the University space. It was built with the observance of the pillars in our Constitution and Citizen will be preserved.

This structure is based on two main driving forces, the participation of an extensive body of private surveillance, hired to cope with the needs of asset protection and a staff own composed of officers carrying out the surveillance and Guards.
The purpose of the supervision is to create conditions that allow the participation of all stakeholders in building a culture of peace. The participation of students, teachers, employees, Union, associations and other stakeholders is necessary and indispensable so that the perception of safety is improved.

The project is based on primary actions intended to protect the public health and safety, at USP. Will not be adopted, actions, secondary there is no legal basis for this coach.

Considering the democratic State of law, your agenda project on community and theoretical principles on democratic principles, directing their actions for the inclusion of all in the process of improving the perception of safety, human solidarity and the relationship of the individual with the environment natural or artificial.

This project leads to a form of management that focuses on practices not reactive, but rather, to all forms of prevention. We will spend the period of "idea of the force" to the "idea" service provided with quality, with ethics and morality, as well as based on examples of success and in modern techniques of prevention.

The Security Oversight will develop a series of actions that must integrate a University prevention and protection project named "University safe." This project, however, depends on the participation of the community uspian to your construction on all campuses and will be able to create opportunities for the culture of peace is definitely installed at USP.

Prof. Dr. Jose Antonio Visintin
Superintendent of University prevention and protection

Mobile security application
USP Safety care primer